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Rafael Galindo, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor, Neurology
Division of Pediatric & Developmental Neurology

Specialty Areas

Pediatric Neurology

Board Certifications


Hospital Affiliations

St. Louis Children's Hospital

Areas of Clinical Interest

pediatric neurology, intensive care of newborns, congenital neurological conditions,

  • Maps & Directions
  • Education
  • Publication & Research

Maps & Directions

Maps & Directions

St. Louis Children’s Hospital

1 Children’s Place
St. Louis, MO 63110

Office Phone: 314-454-6120
Fax: 314-454-2523



Research Fellowship: Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 2013
Fellowship: Pediatric Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 2012
Residency: Neurology, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri 2010
Medical Degree: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 2009
PhD: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 2005
Bachelor of Science: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 1996

Publication & Research

Publication & Research

Allan AM, Galindo R, Chynoweth J, Engel SR, Savage DD. Conditioned place preference for cocaine is attenuated in mice over-expressing the 5-HT(3) receptor. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001;158(1):18-27.


Bender RA, Galindo R, Mameli M, Gonzalez-Vega R, Valenzuela CF, Baram TZ. Synchronized network activity in developing rat hippocampus involves regional hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel function. The European journal of neuroscience. 2005;22(10):2669-2674.


Dail WG, Barba V, Leyba L, Galindo R. Neural and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in rat penile erectile tissue. Cell Tissue Res. 1995;282(1):109-116.


Dail WG, Galindo R, Harji F, Gonzales J. Cytochrome oxidase staining in the major pelvic ganglion of the male rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1997;65(1):57-64.


Dail WG, Galindo R, Leyba L, Barba V. Denervation-induced changes in perineuronal plexuses in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat: immunohistochemistry for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and tyrosine hydroxylase and histochemistry for NADPH-diaphorase. Cell Tissue Res. 1997;287(2):315-324.


Dail WG, Harji F, Gonzales J, Galindo R. Multiple vasodilator pathways from the pelvic plexus to the penis of the rat. Int J Impot Res. 1999;11(5):277-285.


Galindo R, Banks Greenberg M, Araki T, et al. NMNAT3 is protective against the effects of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology 2017; 4(10):


Galindo R, Barba V, Dail WG. The sensory branch of the pudendal nerve is the major route for adrenergic innervation of the penis in the rat. Anat Rec. 1997;247(4):479-485.


Galindo R, Frausto S, Wolff C, Caldwell KK, Perrone-Bizzozero NI, Savage DD. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces mGluR5 receptor number and function in the dentate gyrus of adult offspring. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28(10):1587-1597.


Galindo R, Valenzuela CF. Immature hippocampal neuronal networks do not develop tolerance to the excitatory actions of ethanol. Alcohol. 2006;40(2):111-118.


Galindo R, Zamudio PA, Valenzuela CF. Alcohol is a potent stimulant of immature neuronal networks: implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Journal of neurochemistry. 2005;94(6):1500-1511.


Harji F, Gonzales J, Galindo R, Dail WG. Preganglionic fibers in the rat hypogastric nerve project bilaterally to pelvic ganglia. Anat Rec. 1998;252(2):229-234.


Movsas TZ., Weiner R., Greenberg MB., Holtzman DM and Galindo R. Pretreatment with human chorionic gonadotropin protects the neonatal brain against the effects of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Accepted for publication – Frontiers in Pediatrics, 2017


Roberto M, Treistman SN, Pietrzykowski AZ, et al. Actions of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30(2):222-232.


Savage DD, Galindo R, Queen SA, Paxton LL, Allan AM. Characterization of electrically evoked [3H]-D-aspartate release from hippocampal slices. Neurochemistry international. 2001;38(3):255-267.


Vesoulis ZA, Galindo R, Ornstein BW, White AJ. Neuro-Behcets in a Child. Child Neurol Open. 2014;1(1):2329048X14550505.