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Herbert W. Virgin, MD, PhD

Edward Mallinckrodt Professor and Chair, Pathology and Immunology
Professor, Molecular Microbiology
Professor, Medicine

Specialty Areas

Pathology
Molecular Pathology
Microbiology

Hospital Affiliations

Barnes-Jewish Hospital

Areas of Clinical Interest

Diagnostics using next generation sequencing. Inflammatory bowel disease. Role of the virome in human disease.

  • Education
  • Publication & Research
  • Financial Disclosures

Education

Education

AB, Biology - magna cum laude: Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 1977
Medical Degree: Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 1985
PhD, Immunology: Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 1985
Residency, Internal Medicine: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 1990
Postdoctoral Fellowship (research) - Microbiology and Molecular Genetics: Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 1990
Fellowship, Infectious Diseases: Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 1991

Publication & Research

Publication & Research

Differentiation and Protective Capacity of Virus-Specific CD8<sup>+</sup> T Cells Suggest Murine Norovirus Persistence in an Immune-Privileged Enteric Niche.
Tomov VT, Palko O, Lau CW, Pattekar A, Sun Y, Tacheva R, Bengsch B, Manne S, Cosma GL, Eisenlohr LC, Nice TJ, Virgin HW, Wherry EJ
Immunity. 2017 Oct 17; 47(4)723-738.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.09.017.

PMID:
    29031786
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Norovirus Cell Tropism Is Determined by Combinatorial Action of a Viral Non-structural Protein and Host Cytokine.
Lee S, Wilen CB, Orvedahl A, McCune BT, Kim KW, Orchard RC, Peterson ST, Nice TJ, Baldridge MT, Virgin HW
Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Oct 11; 22(4)449-459.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.08.021.

PMID:
    28966054
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


TREM2 Maintains Microglial Metabolic Fitness in Alzheimer's Disease.
Ulland TK, Song WM, Huang SC, Ulrich JD, Sergushichev A, Beatty WL, Loboda AA, Zhou Y, Cairns NJ, Kambal A, Loginicheva E, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Virgin HW, Unanue ER, Wang Y, Artyomov MN, Holtzman DM, Colonna M
Cell. 2017 Aug 10; 170(4)649-663.e13. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.07.023.

PMID:
    28802038
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Noroviruses Co-opt the Function of Host Proteins VAPA and VAPB for Replication via a Phenylalanine-Phenylalanine-Acidic-Tract-Motif Mimic in Nonstructural Viral Protein NS1/2.
McCune BT, Tang W, Lu J, Eaglesham JB, Thorne L, Mayer AE, Condiff E, Nice TJ, Goodfellow I, Krezel AM, Virgin HW
MBio. 2017 Jul 11; 8(4)pii: e00668-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00668-17.

PMID:
    28698274
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Intestinal virome changes precede autoimmunity in type I diabetes-susceptible children.
Zhao G, Vatanen T, Droit L, Park A, Kostic AD, Poon TW, Vlamakis H, Siljander H, Härkönen T, Hämäläinen AM, Peet A, Tillmann V, Ilonen J, Wang D, Knip M, Xavier RJ, Virgin HW
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jul 25; 114(30)E6166-E6175. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1706359114.

PMID:
    28696303
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Correction: Type I Interferon Receptor Deficiency in Dendritic Cells Facilitates Systemic Murine Norovirus Persistence Despite Enhanced Adaptive Immunity.
Nice TJ, Osborne LC, Tomov VT, Artis D, Wherry EJ, Virgin HW
PLoS Pathog. 2017 Feb; 13(2)e1006223. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006223.

PMID:
    28212439
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


VirusSeeker, a computational pipeline for virus discovery and virome composition analysis.
Zhao G, Wu G, Lim ES, Droit L, Krishnamurthy S, Barouch DH, Virgin HW, Wang D
Virology. 2017 Mar; 50321-30. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2017.01.005.

PMID:
    28110145
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Lactobacillus-Deficient Cervicovaginal Bacterial Communities Are Associated with Increased HIV Acquisition in Young South African Women.
Gosmann C, Anahtar MN, Handley SA, Farcasanu M, Abu-Ali G, Bowman BA, Padavattan N, Desai C, Droit L, Moodley A, Dong M, Chen Y, Ismail N, Ndung'u T, Ghebremichael MS, Wesemann DR, Mitchell C, Dong KL, Huttenhower C, Walker BD, Virgin HW, Kwon DS
Immunity. 2017 Jan 17; 46(1)29-37. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.12.013.

PMID:
    28087240
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Expression of <i>Ifnlr1</i> on Intestinal Epithelial Cells Is Critical to the Antiviral Effects of Interferon Lambda against Norovirus and Reovirus.
Baldridge MT, Lee S, Brown JJ, McAllister N, Urbanek K, Dermody TS, Nice TJ, Virgin HW
J Virol. 2017 Apr 1; 91(7)pii: e02079-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02079-16.

PMID:
    28077655
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Corrigendum: Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells.
Martinez J, Cunha LD, Park S, Yang M, Lu Q, Orchard R, Li QZ, Yan M, Janke L, Guy C, Linkermann A, Virgin HW, Green DR
Nature. 2016 Nov 3; 539(7627)124. doi: 10.1038/nature19837.

PMID:
    27680703
    [PubMed]
Related citations


MHC II+ resident peritoneal and pleural macrophages rely on IRF4 for development from circulating monocytes.
Kim KW, Williams JW, Wang YT, Ivanov S, Gilfillan S, Colonna M, Virgin HW, Gautier EL, Randolph GJ
J Exp Med. 2016 Sep 19; 213(10)1951-9. doi: 10.1084/jem.20160486.

PMID:
    27551152
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Discovery of a proteinaceous cellular receptor for a norovirus.
Orchard RC, Wilen CB, Doench JG, Baldridge MT, McCune BT, Lee YC, Lee S, Pruett-Miller SM, Nelson CA, Fremont DH, Virgin HW
Science. 2016 Aug 26; 353(6302)933-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1220.

PMID:
    27540007
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Impaired autophagy in macrophages promotes inflammatory eye disease.
Santeford A, Wiley LA, Park S, Bamba S, Nakamura R, Gdoura A, Ferguson TA, Rao PK, Guan JL, Saitoh T, Akira S, Xavier R, Virgin HW 4th, Apte RS
Autophagy. 2016 Oct 2; 12(10)1876-1885.

PMID:
    27463423
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Type I Interferon Receptor Deficiency in Dendritic Cells Facilitates Systemic Murine Norovirus Persistence Despite Enhanced Adaptive Immunity.
Nice TJ, Osborne LC, Tomov VT, Artis D, Wherry EJ, Virgin HW
PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jun; 12(6)e1005684. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005684.

PMID:
    27327515
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Accounting for reciprocal host-microbiome interactions in experimental science.
Stappenbeck TS, Virgin HW
Nature. 2016 Jun 9; 534(7606)191-9. doi: 10.1038/nature18285.

PMID:
    27279212
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Gene-microbiota interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Chu H, Khosravi A, Kusumawardhani IP, Kwon AH, Vasconcelos AC, Cunha LD, Mayer AE, Shen Y, Wu WL, Kambal A, Targan SR, Xavier RJ, Ernst PB, Green DR, McGovern DP, Virgin HW, Mazmanian SK
Science. 2016 May 27; 352(6289)1116-20. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9948.

PMID:
    27230380
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Sequential Infection with Common Pathogens Promotes Human-like Immune Gene Expression and Altered Vaccine Response.
Reese TA, Bi K, Kambal A, Filali-Mouhim A, Beura LK, Bürger MC, Pulendran B, Sekaly RP, Jameson SC, Masopust D, Haining WN, Virgin HW
Cell Host Microbe. 2016 May 11; 19(5)713-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.04.003.

PMID:
    27107939
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells.
Martinez J, Cunha LD, Park S, Yang M, Lu Q, Orchard R, Li QZ, Yan M, Janke L, Guy C, Linkermann A, Virgin HW, Green DR
Nature. 2016 May 5; 533(7601)115-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17950.

PMID:
    27096368
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Correction: Elevated p62/SQSTM1 determines the fate of autophagy-deficient neural stem cells by increasing superoxide.
Wang C, Chen S, Yeo S, Karsli-Uzunbas G, White E, Mizushima N, Virgin HW, Guan JL
J Cell Biol. 2016 Mar 28; 212(7)879. doi: 10.1083/jcb.20150702303082016c.

PMID:
    27002165
    [PubMed]
Related citations


Clec16a is Critical for Autolysosome Function and Purkinje Cell Survival.
Redmann V, Lamb CA, Hwang S, Orchard RC, Kim S, Razi M, Milam A, Park S, Yokoyama CC, Kambal A, Kreamalmeyer D, Bosch MK, Xiao M, Green K, Kim J, Pruett-Miller SM, Ornitz DM, Allen PM, Beatty WL, Schmidt RE, DiAntonio A, Tooze SA, Virgin HW
Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 18; 623326. doi: 10.1038/srep23326.

PMID:
    26987296
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations

Financial Disclosures

Financial Disclosures

Disclosure of Financial Interests with Industry

Washington University and its physicians are committed to ensuring integrity and objectivity in medical decision-making. Some of our physicians work collaboratively with pharmaceutical or medical device companies to develop innovative ideas and products that can improve health care delivery and clinical outcomes for patients. In some instances, our faculty physicians are paid by these commercial companies to provide advice on product design or to speak about the use of medications, devices, equipment or procedures. These payments may include: a) compensation for consulting and speaking engagements, b) equity, and/or c) royalties for products invented by our faculty. Any payments to Washington University physicians must be based on tangible services and may not exceed fair market value for their work. In addition to disclosure on this web site, physicians earning more than $10,000 per year must disclose their corporate financial relationship in writing to patients when prescribing or using that company's products.

This physician reported the following earned financial interests during calendar year 2016.

Company Name: Pieriandx

Royalties:

Equity: Yes

Consulting/Advisory Board:

Speaker Fees:

Reporting Date: May 01, 2017


Company Name: Third Rock Ventures

Royalties:

Equity: Yes

Consulting/Advisory Board:

Speaker Fees:

Reporting Date: May 01, 2017


Company Name: Puretech

Royalties:

Equity: Yes

Consulting/Advisory Board:

Speaker Fees:

Reporting Date: May 01, 2017

Areas of Research Interest

Viral infection, immunity, disease pathogenesis, inflammatory bowel disease, AIDS