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C. Robert Cloninger, MD

Wallace Renard Professor, Psychiatry
Professor, Genetics
Professor, Psychology
Director, Center for Psychobiology of Personality

Specialty Areas

Psychological Testing
Adult Psychiatry

Board Certifications

Psychiatry

Hospital Affiliations

Barnes-Jewish Hospital

Referral Information

Not Accepting New Patients

Areas of Clinical Interest

General psychology, personality testing. Research Interests: Genetic epidemiology, genetics of alcohol abuse, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  • Maps & Directions
  • Education
  • Publication & Research

Maps & Directions

Maps & Directions

Barnes-Jewish Hospital (South)
Renard Hospital Building

4940 Children's Place
St. Louis, MO 63110

Suite: Room 3308
Office Phone: 314-362-7005
Fax: 314-362-5594

Education

Education

Fellowship: Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 1969
Medical Degree: Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 1970
B.A.: Philosophy, Psychology, Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 1966

Publication & Research

Publication & Research

Estimation of Genetic Correlation via Linkage Disequilibrium Score Regression and Genomic Restricted Maximum Likelihood.
Ni G, Moser G, Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium., Wray NR, Lee SH
Am J Hum Genet. 2018 Apr 26; pii: S0002-9297(18)30110-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.03.021.

PMID:
    29754766
    [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related citations


Promoting healthy lives and well-being for all: The contribution of the International College of Person-Centered Medicine (ICPCM).
Christodoulou GN, Mezzich JE, Cloninger CR, Christodoulou N, Villar E, Appleyard J, Botbol M
Psychiatriki. 2018 Jan-Mar; 29(1)52-57. doi: 10.22365/jpsych.2018.291.52.

PMID:
    29754120
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


The development of temperament and character during adolescence: The processes and phases of change.
Zohar AH, Zwir I, Wang J, Cloninger CR, Anokhin AP
Dev Psychopathol. 2018 Apr 29; 1-17. doi: 10.1017/S0954579418000159.

PMID:
    29704900
    [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related citations


What is the natural measurement unit of temperament: single traits or profiles?
Cloninger CR, Zwir I
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018 Apr 19; 373(1744)pii: 20170163. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2017.0163.

PMID:
    29483348
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Longitudinal Associations of Explosive and Adventurous Temperament Profiles With Character Development: The Modifying Effects of Social Support and Attachment.
Saarinen AIL, Rosenström TH, Hakulinen CA, Cloninger CR, Hintsanen MHM, Pulkki-Råback LM, Lehtimäki T, Raitakari OT, Keltikangas-Järvinen L
J Clin Psychiatry. 2018 Mar/Apr; 79(2)pii: 17m11587. doi: 10.4088/JCP.17m11587.

PMID:
    29469244
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


The presentation of the mind-brain problem in leading psychiatry journals.
Moreira-Almeida A, Araujo SF, Cloninger CR
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2018 Feb 1; 0. doi: 10.1590/1516-4446-2017-2342.

PMID:
    29412337
    [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related citations


Longitudinal associations of temperament and character with paranoid ideation: A population-based study.
Saarinen A, Rosenström T, Hintsanen M, Hakulinen C, Pulkki-Råback L, Lehtimäki T, Raitakari OT, Cloninger CR, Keltikangas-Järvinen L
Psychiatry Res. 2018 Mar; 261137-142. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.044.

PMID:
    29304427
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Genome-Wide Association Study of Male Sexual Orientation.
Sanders AR, Beecham GW, Guo S, Dawood K, Rieger G, Badner JA, Gershon ES, Krishnappa RS, Kolundzija AB, Duan J, MGS Collaboration., Gejman PV, Bailey JM, Martin ER
Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 7; 7(1)16950. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15736-4.

PMID:
    29217827
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Comparing the Profile of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Mood Disorder with a Control Group.
Hajirezaei S, Mohammadi A, Soleimani M, Rahiminezhad F, Mohammadi MR, Cloninger CR
Iran J Psychiatry. 2017 Jul; 12(3)147-153.

PMID:
    29062365
    [PubMed]
Related citations


The Psychometrics of the European Portuguese Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised.
Moreira PAS, Cloninger CR, Rocha MJ, Oliveira JT, Ferreira N, Gonçalves DM, Rózsa S
Psychol Rep. 2017 Jan 1; 33294117711914. doi: 10.1177/0033294117711914.

PMID:
    28604231
    [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related citations


Self-Directedness Predicts Quality of Life in Individuals with Psychotic Experiences: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
Alminhana LO, Farias M, Claridge G, Cloninger CR, Moreira-Almeida A
Psychopathology. 2017; 50(4)239-245. doi: 10.1159/000474951.

PMID:
    28538227
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Genetic correlation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia.
McLaughlin RL, Schijven D, van Rheenen W, van Eijk KR, O'Brien M, Kahn RS, Ophoff RA, Goris A, Bradley DG, Al-Chalabi A, van den Berg LH, Luykx JJ, Hardiman O, Veldink JH, Project MinE GWAS Consortium., Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.
Nat Commun. 2017 Mar 21; 814774. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14774.

PMID:
    28322246
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Tolerance of ambiguity, perfectionism and resilience are associated with personality profiles of medical students oriented to rural practice.
Eley DS, Leung JK, Campbell N, Cloninger CR
Med Teach. 2017 May; 39(5)512-519. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1297530.

PMID:
    28281843
    [PubMed - in process]
Related citations


Parkinsonian motor impairment predicts personality domains related to genetic risk and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia.
Molina JL, Calvó M, Padilla E, Balda M, Alemán GG, Florenzano NV, Guerrero G, Kamis D, Rangeon BM, Bourdieu M, Strejilevich SA, Conesa HA, Escobar JI, Zwir I, Cloninger CR, de Erausquin GA
NPJ Schizophr. 2017; 316036. doi: 10.1038/npjschz.2016.36.

PMID:
    28127577
    [PubMed]
Related citations


How to tell a happy from an unhappy schizotype: personality factors and mental health outcomes in individuals with psychotic experiences.
Alminhana LO, Farias M, Claridge G, Cloninger CR, Moreira-Almeida A
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2017 Apr-Jun; 39(2)126-132. doi: 10.1590/1516-4446-2016-1944.

PMID:
    27901211
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Contribution of copy number variants to schizophrenia from a genome-wide study of 41,321 subjects.
Marshall CR, Howrigan DP, Merico D, Thiruvahindrapuram B, Wu W, Greer DS, Antaki D, Shetty A, Holmans PA, Pinto D, Gujral M, Brandler WM, Malhotra D, Wang Z, Fajarado KVF, Maile MS, Ripke S, Agartz I, Albus M, Alexander M, Amin F, Atkins J, Bacanu SA, Belliveau RA Jr, Bergen SE, Bertalan M, Bevilacqua E, Bigdeli TB, Black DW, Bruggeman R, Buccola NG, Buckner RL, Bulik-Sullivan B, Byerley W, Cahn W, Cai G, Cairns MJ, Campion D, Cantor RM, Carr VJ, Carrera N, Catts SV, Chambert KD, Cheng W, Cloninger CR, Cohen D, Cormican P, Craddock N, Crespo-Facorro B, Crowley JJ, Curtis D, Davidson M, Davis KL, Degenhardt F, Del Favero J, DeLisi LE, Dikeos D, Dinan T, Djurovic S, Donohoe G, Drapeau E, Duan J, Dudbridge F, Eichhammer P, Eriksson J, Escott-Price V, Essioux L, Fanous AH, Farh KH, Farrell MS, Frank J, Franke L, Freedman R, Freimer NB, Friedman JI, Forstner AJ, Fromer M, Genovese G, Georgieva L, Gershon ES, Giegling I, Giusti-Rodríguez P, Godard S, Goldstein JI, Gratten J, de Haan L, Hamshere ML, Hansen M, Hansen T, Haroutunian V, Hartmann AM, Henskens FA, Herms S, Hirschhorn JN, Hoffmann P, Hofman A, Huang H, Ikeda M, Joa I, Kähler AK, Kahn RS, Kalaydjieva L, Karjalainen J, Kavanagh D, Keller MC, Kelly BJ, Kennedy JL, Kim Y, Knowles JA, Konte B, Laurent C, Lee P, Lee SH, Legge SE, Lerer B, Levy DL, Liang KY, Lieberman J, Lönnqvist J, Loughland CM, Magnusson PKE, Maher BS, Maier W, Mallet J, Mattheisen M, Mattingsdal M, McCarley RW, McDonald C, McIntosh AM, Meier S, Meijer CJ, Melle I, Mesholam-Gately RI, Metspalu A, Michie PT, Milani L, Milanova V, Mokrab Y, Morris DW, Müller-Myhsok B, Murphy KC, Murray RM, Myin-Germeys I, Nenadic I, Nertney DA, Nestadt G, Nicodemus KK, Nisenbaum L, Nordin A, O'Callaghan E, O'Dushlaine C, Oh SY, Olincy A, Olsen L, O'Neill FA, Van Os J, Pantelis C, Papadimitriou GN, Parkhomenko E, Pato MT, Paunio T, Psychosis Endophenotypes International Consortium., Perkins DO, Pers TH, Pietiläinen O, Pimm J, Pocklington AJ, Powell J, Price A, Pulver AE, Purcell SM, Quested D, Rasmussen HB, Reichenberg A, Reimers MA, Richards AL, Roffman JL, Roussos P, Ruderfer DM, Salomaa V, Sanders AR, Savitz A, Schall U, Schulze TG, Schwab SG, Scolnick EM, Scott RJ, Seidman LJ, Shi J, Silverman JM, Smoller JW, Söderman E, Spencer CCA, Stahl EA, Strengman E, Strohmaier J, Stroup TS, Suvisaari J, Svrakic DM, Szatkiewicz JP, Thirumalai S, Tooney PA, Veijola J, Visscher PM, Waddington J, Walsh D, Webb BT, Weiser M, Wildenauer DB, Williams NM, Williams S, Witt SH, Wolen AR, Wormley BK, Wray NR, Wu JQ, Zai CC, Adolfsson R, Andreassen OA, Blackwood DHR, Bramon E, Buxbaum JD, Cichon S, Collier DA, Corvin A, Daly MJ, Darvasi A, Domenici E, Esko T, Gejman PV, Gill M, Gurling H, Hultman CM, Iwata N, Jablensky AV, Jönsson EG, Kendler KS, Kirov G, Knight J, Levinson DF, Li QS, McCarroll SA, McQuillin A, Moran JL, Mowry BJ, Nöthen MM, Ophoff RA, Owen MJ, Palotie A, Pato CN, Petryshen TL, Posthuma D, Rietschel M, Riley BP, Rujescu D, Sklar P, St Clair D, Walters JTR, Werge T, Sullivan PF, O'Donovan MC, Scherer SW, Neale BM, Sebat J, CNV and Schizophrenia Working Groups of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.
Nat Genet. 2017 Jan; 49(1)27-35. doi: 10.1038/ng.3725.

PMID:
    27869829
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Stress reactivity and personality in extreme sport athletes: The psychobiology of BASE jumpers.
Monasterio E, Mei-Dan O, Hackney AC, Lane AR, Zwir I, Rozsa S, Cloninger CR
Physiol Behav. 2016 Dec 1; 167289-297. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.09.025.

PMID:
    27693575
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


The influence of temperament and character profiles on specialty choice and well-being in medical residents.
Sievert M, Zwir I, Cloninger KM, Lester N, Rozsa S, Cloninger CR
PeerJ. 2016; 4e2319. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2319.

PMID:
    27651982
    [PubMed]
Related citations


Rethinking registrar attributes for Australian rural general practice training.
Eley DS, Laurence C, David M, Cloninger CR, Walters L
Aust J Rural Health. 2017 Aug; 25(4)227-234. doi: 10.1111/ajr.12319.

PMID:
    27600456
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations


Identifying the Dominant Personality Profiles in Medical Students: Implications for Their Well-Being and Resilience.
Eley DS, Leung J, Hong BA, Cloninger KM, Cloninger CR
PLoS One. 2016; 11(8)e0160028. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160028.

PMID:
    27494401
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related citations